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FSGS

What is Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)?

What does Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) mean?

What are the causes of FSGS?

What are the symptoms of FSGS?

How about the prognosis of FSGS?

What is the diet for FSGS?

What is Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a kidney disorder that affects the filtering system of the kidneys and typically causes an abnormal loss of proteins in urine. FSGS is a common cause of Nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, and an important cause of end-stage kidney failure in adults.

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What does Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) mean?

Sclerosis means scarring. There are millions of filtering cells in the kidneys called as “glomerulis”. They are much like the sieve found in the kitchen, which filter blood, clear toxins out of the body and leaving proteins in bloodstream. If the glomerular cells are scarred, an excess amount of proteins will run into urine. In FSGS, the premix “focal” suggests that only some of the glomerular cells are scarred. “Segmental” means that only some sections on each glomeruli is damaged. So Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis means:

Focal=some

Segmental=sections

Glomorulo= of kidney filters

Sclerosis= are scarred

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What are the causes of FSGS?

There may be several different diseases that cause the same appearance of the kidneys. The general cause of FSGS is thought as immunological, which means that the antibodies and white blood cells we have to fight off infections cause some damage to our own antibiotics by mistake.

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What are the symptoms of FSGS?

FSGS causes inefficient filtering of the kidneys which can cause the following symptoms:

Proteinuria---heavy proteins run into urine

Edema---swelling of the eyes, hands, feet, etc

Hypertension—high blood pressure

Hypercholesterolemia---high cholesterol in bloodstream

Hypoproteinemia—low blood proteins

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How about the prognosis of FSGS?

The prognosis for FSGS differs in different cases. Generally, the less protein in urine, the better the patient will be. In some cases, it may go away on its own, or may continue unchanged for many years which require only regular checkups. However, if the condition can not be controlled well and relapses frequently, this is associated to greatly increased risks of progressing into advanced kidney diseases. The prognosis is not good if FSGS develops to Chronic Kidney failure. Kidney function may get irreversibly decline. Furthermore, due to FSGS has immunological basis, its relapse rate is high even after renal transplant. As is revealed, within hours to weeks after a kidney transplant, FSGS returns in approximately 30% to 40% cases.

As for the refractory cases of FSGS, the patients become less reactive or even resistant to hormone treatment so it easily progresses. Immunotherapy, focusing on remedying immune disorders and treating the damaged kidneys, combines western medicine treatment and Chinese medicine treatment as a whole and may make a further step towards better treating FSGS, preventing its progression and delaying onset of kidney failure.

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What is the diet for FSGS?

A healthy diet for FSGS consists of low salt, fat and cholesterol, with emphasis on fruits and vegetables.

1.Low-salt diet: salt is high in sodium and high intake of sodium always elevate blood pressure and worsen swelling symptom. Therefore, getting far aways from salted foods is very beneficial.

2. low fat (1% or skim) dairy products

3. If lab tests show high potassium and phosphorus level, FSGS patients also need to avoid foods with high potassium and phosphorus like banana and spinage.

4. Lots of fruits and vegetables-fiber such as whole grains, fruits and vegetables can help to lower total and LDL cholesterol.

5. Proper protein intake: foods like chicken, fish and egg white contain high quality protein which can help to meet the demand of physical activity and meanwhile produce less wastes. Therefore, it is good for FSGS patients to eat some fish, chicken and egg white.

6. Fluids should be restricted seriously if patients have severe swelling symptom.

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