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Hypertensive Nephropathy

· What is Hypertensive Nephropathy?

· What are the risk factors for Hypertensive Nephropathy?

· What are the signs and symptoms of Hypertensive Nephropathy?

· How is Hypertensive Nephropathy diagnosed?

· What is the prognosis of Hypertensive Nephropathy?

· Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

What is Hypertensive Nephropathy?

Hypertensive Nephropathy is a condition that refers to damage to kidney due to chronic high blood pressure. It is a common form of kidney disease and a frequent cause of damage. If left untreated or controlled effectively, Hypertensive Nephropathy is more likely to lead to renal failure.

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What are the risk factors for Hypertensive Nephropathy?

· High blood pressure or hypertension.

· Diabetes mellitus both type 1 and type 2.

· Male gender is at higher risk than female

· People of color

· Pre-existing kidney diseases.

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What are the signs and symptoms of Hypertensive Nephropathy?

High blood pressure, secondary to Diabetes, has been one leading causes of kidney disease. There are some symptoms warn people of Hypertensive Nephropathy, but symptoms vary from individual to individual. The following is an overview of these symptoms:

· Frequent urination-People with Hypertensive Nephropathy may find they get up at night frequently to go to the bathroom.

· Foamy urine and hematuria-When there is protein in urine, patients’ urine will show foamy, while some blood red cells leak from kidney or urinary tract infections will easily cause hematuria.

· Swelling/Edema-In cases of kidney problems caused by chronic high blood pressure, swelling (or edema) always occurs as a consequence of long-term leakage of protein and fluid retention.

· Fatigue, nausea and vomiting. With anemia, fatigue occurs easily, while nausea and vomiting is usually due to build up of toxins and wastes in the body.

· Chest pain, back pain or headache.

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How is Hypertensive Nephropathy diagnosed?

Just as other kidney diseases, Hypertensive Nephropathy also needs a lot of tests to determine it. The following is some common tests for this disease.

· Blood tests which includes creatinine and BUN in the blood, estimated GFR, electrolyte levels and acid-base balance and blood cell counts.

·Urine tests including uric albumin test, β2 microglobulin in urine, urinary N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase and twenty-four hour urine tests.

· Other tests such as ultrasound, biopsy, etc.

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What is the prognosis of Hypertensive Nephropathy?

According to the severity of patients’ condition, Hypertensive Nephropathy is divided into two types: benign nephrosclerosis and malignant nephrosclerosis. The prognosis varies in these two types.

Benign nephrosclerosis: this condition will rarely result in renal failure. Between 1-5% of patients with this condition with develop renal failure at some stage in the disease process. Malignant nephrosclerosis: with modern therapy, 75% of patients are able to survive more then five years from the onset of disease. The earlier that treatment is initiated, the greater the renal function on resolution of the condition.

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Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

A healthy diet is intimately linked with the whole treatment of Hypertensive Nephropathy, so people with this disease should arrange their diet according to the following principles.

· Limit intake of salt or sodium-Too much salt will aggravate patients’ high blood pressure and then cause some other severe complications. Most often, the daily intake of salt should be limited within 6g. Canned foods, processed foods and curing foods, etc, all contain high salt.

· Take correct amount of protein-High-quality protein rather than high-quantity protein is recommended to people with not only hypertensive Nephropathy but also nearly all kidney diseases.

· Supply enough vitamin-Taking enough vitamins especially vitamin B is very helpful.

· Control intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fats, especially if cholesterol is high or if you have diabetes or heart disease.

· Eat more vegetables and fruits.

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