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Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome is a group of symptoms, including proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, low hypoalbuminia, Edema.

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

What causes Nephrotic Syndrome?

What are the symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome?

What are the complications of Nephrotic Syndrome?

What are the tests for nephrotic syndrome?

Who is at the risk?
 

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

As mentioned above, nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms which causes damage to kidney, if not treated timely.

Proteinuria--is a condition in which larger amounts of protein leaks into the urine.

Hypoalbuminia--is condition in which the blood albumin levels is lower than the normal range.

Hyperlipidemia-- refers to a higher fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.

Edema-- patients may experience the swellings in face, ankles, hands, feet and legs etc.

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What causes Nephrotic Syndrome?

Many primary kidney disease can develop into nephrotic syndrome. The common causes of nephrotic syndrome include FSGS (focal segmental glomerulonephritis), IgA Nephropathy, Pupura Nephritis, Minimal Change Disease, membranous glomerulonephritis, glomerular nephritis and Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis etc.

Besides primary kidney disease, there are other medical conditions that can cause nephrotic syndrome, such as: cancer, drug abuse, immune disorders, diabetes, amyloidosis, multiple myeloma, lupus, genetic problems and repeated infections etc.

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What are the symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome?

As we mentioned above, nephrotic syndrome presents with roteinuria, hyperlipidemia, low hypoalbuminia, Edema. And besides these symptoms, you may also experience fatigue, back pain, poor appetite and insomnia and weight again etc.

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What are the complications of Nephrotic Syndrome?

As the nephrotic syndrome develops, some possible complications may occur as follows.

Blood clot--The inability of the glomeruli to filter blood properly can lead to loss of blood proteins that help prevent clotting.

Hypertension--damaged glomeruli will cause the waste products build up in the bloodstream. This will increase the blood pressure.

Infection--with the progression of nephrotic syndrome, the patients are at risk to develop various infections.

Kidney Failure--if nephrotic syndrome cannot be treated well, it will cause the kidneys to lose its function gradually. And over time, it may develop into Kidney Failure.

Anemia--This is due to loss of proteins that help to carry iron around in the bloodstream. You need iron to make red blood cells and to prevent anaemia.

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What are the tests for nephrotic syndrome?

The tests will help your doctor to make an diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome and help make a proper treatment plan for your conditions.

Tests for kidney damages

-Urinalysis

- Blood test

- Creatinine clearance - urine test

- Albumin blood test

- Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

- Creatinine

- Blood chemistry tests such as basic metabolic panel or comprehensive metabolic panel

- Kidney Biopsy

Tests for the Differential Diagnosis

- Antinuclear antibody

- Cryoglobulins

- Rheumatoid factor

- Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP)

- HIV test

- Syphilis serology

- Hepatitis B and C antibodies

- Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP)

- Glucose tolerance test

-Complement levels

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Who is at the risk?

If you are in one of the following conditions, the risk to develop nephrotic syndrome will be higher for you.

- If you have certain infections, such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and malaria;

- If you are in the following medical conditions, such as diabetes, lupus, amyloidosis, minimal change disease and other kidney diseases.

- If you are using the following medicines, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs used to fight infections.

When you begin to suffer some symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome, it warns your kidneys are losing its functions. At that time, you are suggested to take treatment as soon as possible. If it is untreated, it will lead to Kidney Failure eventually.

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